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mental illness

Mental illness are the health conditions that involving significant changes in thinking, emotion and/or behavior, distress and problems functioning in social, work or family activities. Mental illness refers collectively to all diagnosable mental disorders.

Examples of signs and symptoms from mayoclinic:

1. Feeling sad or down
2. Confused thinking or reduced ability to concentrate
3. Excessive fears or worries, or extreme feelings of guilt
4. Extreme mood changes of highs and lows
5. Withdrawal from friends and activities
6. Significant tiredness, low energy or problems sleeping
7. Detachment from reality (delusions), paranoia or hallucinations
8. Inability to cope with daily problems or stress
9. Trouble understanding and relating to situations and to people
10. Alcohol or drug abuse
11. Major changes in eating habits
12. Sex drive changes
13. Excessive anger, hostility or violence
14. Suicidal thinking
(source: signs of mental illness)
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word of mouth

Recommendations that people verbally make to each other about a product of service.

Word of mouth has made this film a hit.
The novel has become a worldwide best-seller, largely by word of mouth.
Most customers hear about his company by word of mouth.
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youth hostel

A place providing cheap accommodation for short periods to young people when they are travelling.

We shared a room in the youth hostel.

Example view of a youth hostel room:
youth hostel
(Image source: Walk of Fame Hollywood Hostel)
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Demand is the consumer's need or desire to own the products or services.

An increase in automobile prices may lead to a decline in demand for gas.
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ancient monument

An ancient monument is a very old building or remains of one, also called as a historic monument, especially one that is an important part of a country's history and is open to visitors.

"Ancient monument" differs the term "national monument". National monuments are determined by reason of their cultural importance rather than age.

The ancient monument should be restored immediately.
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1. The word "attend" means to go to an event or being present in a place regularly.
His daughter prefers to attend a school that provides education for females only.

2. Accompany as a companion.
During the tour, I was attended by a lovely Swiss girl.

3. Pay attention.
He hasn't attended to a word of his teacher.

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academic year

The time during a year when the school is open and students are studying.

He is graduating at the end of the academic year with a bachelor degree in law.
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massive heart attack

A very serious heart attack. It is the most severe form of heart attack. Person may become unconscious, suffer permanent heart damage or permanent heat damage, or in the worst-case scenario the heart can stop beating.

No one would like to suffer from a massive heart attack.
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streaming cold

[British] A heavy cold accompanied by copious running of the nose and eyes.

She has been in bed with a streaming cold.
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back up

The action of moving backward.
If you back up your car a bit further, I can park too.
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1. Background is used to describe processes running on a computer that don't need input from the user.
My anti-virus program runs in the background when the processor is idle.

2. The furthest part of an image from the viewer while another object is exist in front of background.
You need to set a smaller aperture value to take a photo with a blurred background.

3. Your experience of working or education, criminal history.
I have a background in software engineering.
He was the prime suspect because of his background.

4. Origin, social heritage.
He comes from a working-class (or wealthy) background.
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beta test

Beta test is the test before the original version of a software is made available to the public. It is the second phase of software testing. The first one, alpha test is carried out by developers and the beta test is carried out by users.

The words "alpha" and "beta" are the first two letters of Greek alphabet.
(alpha, beta, gamma, delta,
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Using both letters and numerals. The word alpha represents the alphabet.

:: Origin ::
The "alpha" is the first character of Greek alphabet and the Greek alphabet is the ancestor of the Latin script.
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Astroturfing is an orchestrated and artificial public relations campaign aimed at creating a deceptive impression that a product or service is extremely popular.
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Arab Spring

Arab spring is the name of the anti-goverment uprisings that occured in 2010 in the areas of North Africa.

In Tunisia, a policewoman allegedly slapped a street vendor (Mohamed Bouazizi, 26 years old) in the public and confiscated his vegetable cart. He wanted to take back his articles but he was refused by the municipal officers. And he set himself on fire outside the local municipal office.

This triggered the Jasmine Revolution in Tunisia. Social media was used to communicate, organize, and inform the world about repressions. Protests were spread across the Middle East that came to be called the "Arab Spring."

Arab Spring started in Tunisia and spread Egypt, Libya, Yemen, Bahrain, Syria, Algeria, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco, Sudan, Mauritania, Oman , Saudi Arabia, Djibouti, Western Sahara, and the Palestinian territories.

According to Wikipedia, the term "Arab Spring" is an allusion to the Revolutions of 1848, which are sometimes referred to as the "Springtime of Nations", and the Prague Spring in 1968.

Overthrown governments by Arab Spring are Tunisia, Egypt, Yemen, and Libya.
In Syria, it was transformed into Syrian Civil War.
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The Amazon is one of the two longest rivers in the world. (Generally the Nile is regarded as the longest river) Amazon is the largest one by discharge volume of water in the world. The Amazon River is 4,000 miles long, begins at Andes Mountains, in Peru and flows east into the Atlantic Ocean.

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An Algorithm is a set of rules written by a software engineer to provide a step-by-step procedure for a computer program. The algorithm tells the computer the order and proper techniques to accomplish the task.

For example, Google's search algorithm might use your past searches to help decide what answer is best for you.

Flow chart of an algorithm:
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API is an acronym for Application Programming Interface. It is a source code interface that a computer system uses to support requests for services to be made by a computer program.

It is a set of clearly defined methods of communication between the service and any other software or components. An API defines the data structures of the program.

An API is the interface that delivers your request to the service provider, and then delivers the response back to you.

For instance, Twitter's REST API allows developers to access core Twitter data. And the Search API provides methods for developers to interact with Twitter Search and trends data.
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A nebula is a diffuse cloud of dust and gases in outer space. "Nebula" is a Latin word that is used in the meaning of "cloud" or "fog".

Example usage:
NASA has discovered a new star in the Carina Nebula.

An example view of a nebula:
Rosette Nebula - Photo Credit & Copyright: Brian Lula
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