Audi alteram partem

The Latin phrase "audi alteram partem" means that all sides to a dispute must be heard or be given opportunity to be heard before a decision is taken affecting them one way or the other. In other words, it means to hear the other side.

It is a mandatory constitutional requirement in any adjudicatory process and any failure to observe it renders such process null and void.

Root of title

The term "root of title" refers to the origin of one's ownership of a particular property. One may have to trace his origin of ownership of a plot of land to the person who sells the land to him.

Sine die

It means indefinitely. A case may have to be adjourned without giving it a specific date in which case it will be said that it is adjourned sine die.

Non est factum

The Latin term "Non est factum" means “not my act.” It is a kind of defense that may be raised by a person who is trying to escape liability as a result of a document signed by him.

Identification parade

Identification parade is a queue of a number of suspects arranged by the police in which a victim of a crime is invited to identify the perpetrator of the crime against him. This is done in order to be sure that a suspect is indeed the offender through the proper identification of the latter by the victim.

old age

1. Old age is the period of someone's life when they are old. You may consider it after 65 years old.
My parents have saved enough for their old age.

2. It also refers to state of being old.
My teacher doesn't like to travel much because of old age.


Courtesy is the right a husband has in his wife's estate at the time of her death.
Needs to be improved.


Hacking is an unauthorized access into a network system for the purpose of alter system features to achieve a goal, usually with malicious intent (black hat). The attacker referred to as a hacker.

Breaking into a network system to test their security is known as "white hat" hacking, and performing illegal activities are known as "black hat" hacking.

higher education

The education provided by a college or university that is followed after high school.
Her parents encourage her to pursue higher education.
Many women have decided to pursue higher education and careers instead of getting married and giving birth to children.

aisle seat

A seat in a plain or train which is next to an aisle.
Would you like an aisle seat or a window seat?


It's the symbol of Argon element in chemistry.

Res judicata

This is a principle which states that once a civil matter has been decided by a court, people affected by such case cannot start the same case all over again before the same court or another court which is of equal status as the former one, unless the matter goes on appeal. This is designed to prevent a situation where a case which has been decided would be commenced afresh.

Preferred Stock

A preferred stock is a corporate stock entitling its owner to preferential treatment over owners of common stock or lower classes of preferred stock.

For example, preferred stock holders may be paid dividends before common stock holders or receive distributions upon liquidation of the corporation before common stock holders.

First past the post

In horse racing, the idiom "first past the post" refers to the first horse/jockey to reach the finish line and win a race.
My horse was first past the post in the race.

bad breath

Breath that smells unpleasant.
The only thing about my new girlfriend is her bad breath.
If you don't want your breath to be so bad, you should clean your teeth more often.


Alphanumeric means "containing both numbers and letters". The term was created in the 1950s by combining the words alphabet and numerical.

Alphanumeric code consists of characters that represent both the letter of the alphabet and the digits 0 to 9. However, in some usages, alphanumeric characters can contain various symbols, including punctuation marks and the signs for mathematical operations.


Slander is tort of making verbal statements which injure another's reputation. Slander is distinguishable from libel because libel is a publication of defamatory statement, while slander is a spoken statement.


An injunction is a court order requiring a person to do or refrain from doing something.

There are three types of injunctions:

1. Temporary Restraining Orders
2. Preliminary Injunctions
3. Permanent Injunctions

A temporary injunction prohibits an action by a party to a lawsuit until there has been a trial or other court action.

Temporary Restraining Orders and Preliminary Injunctions can be issued by the judge early in a lawsuit to stop the defendant from continuing his or her allegedly harmful actions.

Permanent injunctions are issued as a final judgment in a case, where monetary damages will not suffice. Failure to comply with an injunction may result in being held in contempt of court, which in turn may result in either criminal or civil liability.

Beta test

Beta test is the test before the original version of a software is made available to the public. It is the second phase of software testing. The first one, alpha test is carried out by developers and the beta test is carried out by users.

The words "alpha" and "beta" are the first two letters of Greek alphabet.
(alpha, beta, gamma, delta,