Elements of a crime

There are things that the prosecution needs to prove in a criminal case in order to attain a proof beyond reasonable doubt as required by law.

Each offence has its elements. For example, in a case of rape, the following must be proved: (a) that a suspect has carnal knowledge of a woman or girl without her consent; and (b) that there is penetration even if it is slight.


A bond is a written instrument as a debt security in which the issuer binds himself in favor of the holder to do a certain act. Bonds are generally negotiable, the ownership of the instrument can be transferred in the secondary market. The most common types of bonds include municipal bonds and corporate bonds.
Bond certificate for the state of South Carolina issued in 1873 under the state's Consolidation Act.

Forward slash

A forward slash, also known as just slash, is a symbol which looks like this: "/". It is most commonly used in the following ways:

1. To show choices – meaning literally “and or”; for example "small/medium/large".
2. To show a ratio of things (“miles/day” in traveling would be how many miles you travel per day; it could be spoken as “miles per day;”)
3. To separate the different parts of a collection of electronic documents.

This third use is the most common use of the "/" symbol in computer and it has been used for a long time. It was created as an aid to organizing and finding the various files you might store on a computer.

See, backslash.


SEO is an abbreviation for "Search Engine Optimization" and refers to methods used to increase the number of visitors of a website by improving its rankings in the search results. Any traffic that you do not have to pay for, such as traffic from search engines is called "organic traffic".

Trying to manipulate rankings using SEO techniques which are considered as artificial is called black hat SEO and can be affected by a penalty which may result in the drop of rankings all across the site.

Google dominates search market and rank websites in their search engine results by using an algorithm called PageRank. According to Google, PageRank works by counting the number and quality of links to a page to determine a rough estimate of how important the website is. The underlying assumption is that more important websites are likely to receive more links from other websites.

Here is a study by ahrefs that describes how "On Page SEO" and backlink factors correlate with rankings:

Backlink Factors vs. On Page Factors:

Today, most people are searching on Google using a mobile device. In November 2016, Google announced a major change to the way crawling websites and started to make their index mobile-first, which means the mobile version of your website becomes the starting point for what Google includes in their index. It is not a mobile-only index, for instance, if a site doesn’t have a mobile-friendly version, the desktop site can still be included in the index.

In pari delicto

It means “in equal fault.” For instance, if one person engages another person to write his examination for him, both parties can be said to be blameworthy and neither may enforce the contract.

Pro bono

Pro bono means the performance of legal services by a lawyer to a person free of charge.

Contributory negligence

This concept usually arises in a case of negligence where a person (defendant) sued for negligence is not denying liability but is saying that the claimant also contributes to the occurrence of the negligence.

It is the concept based on the argument that if claimant acted negligently, then defendant is not liable.


"Accuse" means to charge someone with a crime; to claim that somebody has done something illegally or is guilty of something. If an accused person is found guilty, the person is called a convict.

Organic food

Food that is produced by not using artificial chemicals and methods.
Sarah says that she only eats organic food since it is healthy and nutritious.

:: Related Terms ::
organic farming

Pacta sunt servanda

The term has two meanings:
1) it means that an agreement must be kept.
2) it means that countries must keep their obligations under treaties.

The first relates to the law of contract while the second is a fundamental principle of international law.

Negotiable instrument

Negotiable instruments are documents designed for making payments in respect of which ownership may be transferred from one person to another until the final payment is made.

Examples of negotiable instruments are bill of exchange, checks, promissory notes, treasury bills, banker's draft etc.


The Noughties refers to the decade between 2000-2009. The Noughties, the Aughties, the Aughts, or the Oughties, all are the terms stands for the years 2000-2009.

80s: The Eighties
90s: The Nineties
00s: The Noughties, The Aughts, The Aughties, The Oughties

I had written that book in the Noughties.

rate of return

Rate of return is the proportion of the money that was originally invested and returned as profit.

:: The Formula ::
Rate of return (%) = ((Current price - Original price) / Original price) x 100

We are very happy since the average rate of return on all our investments has remained above 10%.

MOS 6502

MOS 6502 is an 8-bit microprocessor introduced in 1975 that became very famous because it could be purchased for about 20% of the usual price of processors of that era. The 6502 was caused rapid decreases in pricing across the entire processor market. 6502 processors were the basic design used in many original video game systems. Atari, Nintendo and Commodore 64 used the 6502 or variations of it.
MOS 6502


It is a form of punishment which may be imposed by a court on an accused person who has been tried and found guilty of a crime. It usually requires a convict to pay a specified sum of money into the government coffers.

Some offences have alternative punishments which may require a convict to either pay fine or go to jail but most serious offences such as manslaughter do not have the option of fine.


In computer programs, the default value is a preselected option assigned by the programmer when no alternative is specified by the user.

Hire purchase

Hire purchase is a business arrangement where one party otherwise known as the owner gives goods to another called the hirer whereby the latter will be making some periodical payment (technically known as installments) to the former until the full cost of the goods is off-set.

Upon the full payment of the purchase price, the ownership of the goods would be transferred to the hirer. Until the transfer of ownership takes place, the hirer is not the owner and therefore, he cannot handle the goods as if it belongs to him.


A domain name is the address of your website that people type in the browser address bar to visit your website. Simply, if your website was a house, then your domain name will be its address that indicates the real (IP) address of your website. Since an IP address is quite difficult to remember, domain names were invented to solve this problem.