This refers to a situation where a higher court agrees with a judgment given by a lower court in respect of which the higher court has entertained an appeal and arrives at the same result like the lower court.

Trial de novo

It is a situation where a case that is almost completed has to be started afresh. De Novo itself means to start something afresh.

In common law systems, one feature that distinguishes an appellate proceeding from a trial de novo is that new evidence may not ordinarily be presented in an appeal, though there are rare instances when it may be allowed—usually evidence that came to light only after the trial and could not, in all diligence, have been presented in the lower court.

In the United States, some states provide for bench trials only for small claims, traffic offenses, and criminal offenses with a penalty of imprisonment of less than six months, then provide the ability to appeal a loss to the trial court of general jurisdiction for a brand-new trial.


  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trial_de_novo


In computer science, "address" refers to the location of a specific piece of information, device or other item that can be accessed by computers.

The most common system used for addresses on the Internet are IP addresses that use a series of four numbers, separated by dots. An example would be:

Each computer or device on that network will have a unique "address" that is known by the other computers and devices in the network. Your own personal computer will also have a unique address that it uses for interacting with the various resources on the Internet.

When you use your browser to request a web page from a web server, the web server usually makes a record of what computer asked for the web page, what web page was requested, and whether or not the web page was successfully sent to the requesting computer. The record will contain, among this other data, the IP address of your computer.

Additionally, your internet service provider (ISP) stores who was using what IP address at a particular time. Under an existing law, ISPs are required to retain records for 90 days upon request of a "government entity". They will usually keep that records 3 to 9 months.


Compensation is money or its equivalent which a real estate agent receives for services.


A mortgage is an agreement where the owner of property especially landed property transfers his documents of title over such property to another person in order to serve as a collateral security for a loan obtained by such property owner.

Parties to a mortgage agreement are mortgagor and mortgagee.

flash flood

A sudden and severe flood, usually caused by heavy rain.
We must hurry up or we'll get caught in a flash flood. -Oh, too late.
flash flood

No-go zone

A "no-go zone" (or "no-go area") is an area that has notoriety for violence and crime which can be dangerous for people to go there, barricaded off to civil (such as police) or military authorities usually by a paramilitary organization.


ALGOL (short for "Algorithmic Language") is a computer programming language developed jointly by a committee of European and American computer scientists in 1958 that was mainly used to solve math problems and scientific equations.

The name ALGOL was taken from the word “algorithm” (a set of steps to solve a problem or perform an action). Many of the first computer programs that aided scientists in creating military craft and equipment were written in ALGOL.


Legally, desertion is a situation where a spouse abandons the other spouse without the latter's consent and without known reason for a period of time. If the abandonment continues for a year or more, the other spouse may sue for divorce.

Binding authority

A judgement of a higher court is said to have binding effect on a lower court if the facts of a case being handled by the lower court are similar to the facts of the case already decided by the higher court. In other words, a binding authority is a case that must be followed by a lower court in deciding a present case before it.

Real property

Real property is a legal concept that refers to a real estate including the bundle of property rights in addition to real estate ownership. Examples of real property rights include the right of ownership, right of possession, right of exclusion, right of disposition, and the right of use and enjoyment.

Real property, real estate, realty, or immovable property are mostly used interchangeably. However, in the legal sense, real property is a broader concept than real estate and refers to the bundle of rights involved with ownership.


Acquittal means a verdict of vindication entered in favor of a person who has been tried for a criminal act and found not guilty.


A Turkish alcoholic drink flavored with aniseed. It is usually mixed with water before drinking. In Turkish slang, it is called lion milk.

Raki is drinked with appetizers called “meze”, and locals say the best meze for Raki is conversation… That is to say you need at least one person to sit at a raki table.


An asset is something that is valuable or useful. It can be a physical thing, for example, property, money, houses, cars, etc. but it can also be things that you cannot touch, such as a good reputation, patience or being able to speak a foreign language.
The total assets of the company are 1.2 billion dollars.
A company's assets can consist of cash, accounts receivable, investments, inventory, land, buildings, or registered trademarks.
Her best asset is her smile.


The Amazon is one of the two longest rivers in the world. (Generally the Nile is regarded as the longest river) Amazon is the largest one by discharge volume of water in the world. The Amazon River is 4,000 miles long, begins at Andes Mountains, in Peru and flows east into the Atlantic Ocean.


The term "bequest" refers to a gift of a personal (movable) item in a will other than immovable gift such as land or house.

Prerogative of mercy

It is the power of a governor or the president to grant either conditional or total pardon to those who have been convicted of crimes whether they are still serving their punishments or they are ex-convicts. Once a person is granted pardon, especially if total, such person's criminal record is totally erased and the previous conviction cannot count against him anymore.

Organic food

Food that is produced by not using artificial chemicals and methods.
Sarah says that she only eats organic food since it is healthy and nutritious.

:: Related Terms ::
organic farming