cover for

To hide someone's wrongdoing from someone else, by lying for them.
If I go to the party tonight, will you cover for me? Just tell mom that we're studying for the exam.

Temporarily, doing the work in place that someone else usually does, because they are not there.
Joanna, will you cover for me for one hour, I gotta go to the kid's school.

Armed robbery

When a robber or a group of robbers try to rob a place and if they are carrying weapons such as a gun or knives, it is called armed robbery.


A postal address signifies a specific location in your town, city, neighborhood, apartment building, etc.

When addressing international mail, you may use the following USPS recommendations for addresses.

Use all capital letters with no more than 5 lines, including:
1. Addressee's name
2. Street address or P.O. box number
3. City or town, principal subdivision such as province, state, or county, and postal code. In some countries, the postal code may precede the city or town.
4. Country name

An example postal address in the U.S.:


Concurrent sentence

It is a method of punishment employed where a person is found guilty of multiple crimes with varying degrees of punishments and the terms of imprisonment are to run simultaneously (i.e. together or at the same).

For example, A is standing trial for 3 different crimes with each carrying the following jail terms: 4, 7 and 2 years' imprisonment respectively. Where A is found guilty of all the three counts and the trial judge allows the terms to run together (i.e. concurrently), then it means A will only spend 7 years in prison because that is the highest jail term and not 13 years. Similarly, assuming each of the 3 offences carries the same jail term, say 5 years. In that case, A will only serve 5 years in prison and not 15 years.

Contrast: consecutive sentence.

Jactitation of marriage

Jactitation of marriage is a claim made by a person to be married to another person when in actual fact there is no marriage between the two. This is usually done by the person making the claim in order to boost his own prestige at the expense of another's reputation.

Admissible evidence

The term "admissible evidence" refers to a piece of evidence which the law allows a court to receive or take into consideration in its decision. Courts do not just admit evidence given before them but only pieces of evidence which comply with the laid-down rules. Evidence of a person who himself witnessed a case before a court is deemed an admissible evidence but hearsay evidence is inadmissible.

See, hearsay evidence.

From the bar

When a lawyer says “I am speaking from the bar”, what he is saying is that “I am speaking the whole truth.” Once a lawyer says he is speaking from the bar, it means whatever he says in that regard should be taken as if he is under oath in which case, he has to speak the truth and the court is expected to act on what he says.

Also, a lawyer may tender a document “from the bar”, which means the document has to be received by the court and be acted upon as if it is being tendered by a witness given evidence under oath.

Severally liable

If two or more persons are severally liable, it means each person has a share of liability which is individually borne and not collectively.

For example, if a group of persons, on one hand, enters into a contract with another person, on the other hand, in which there is several liability clause and a member of the group fails to perform his portion of the contract, it is only the person who fails to perform that is liable to the other party and not all the members of the group.

For a plaintiff, a claim for damages in which defendants are made jointly and severally liable is better than either being made jointly or severally liable.


A term used for people who are from London.

Joinder of parties

When a suit is filed in court, all persons affected by that suit should be made parties to it. So anybody left out in the suit may be added as the case progresses through a process called joinder of parties.


A point at which parts of two bones or elements of a skeleton join.

Ex debito justitiae

The Latin term "ex debito justitiae" means what a person is entitled to as of right.

Usage example:
Workers whose salaries have been withheld without justification are ex debito justatiae entitled to be paid with no further delay.

Call over date

The term "call over date" is used to describe cases that fall on public holidays as a result of which they do not come up as courts would not sit. Such cases would first be attended to when next courts sit before cases of that particular day are called.

root cause

The main or fundamental cause for the occurrence of a fault or problem.
It is widely argued that poverty is the root cause of crime.


The copy of files stored somewhere other than the original location such as external hard disk, flash disk, compact disk, etc.


Sign on the back of a promissory note or check for the purpose of transferring ownership of the note or check to make it payable to someone other than the stated payee or to accept responsibility for paying it.

"In blank" means payment is guaranteed to subsequent holders.
"Without recourse" means payment to subsequent holders is not guaranteed.

ethnic minority

A group of people living in a country or area in which most people have a different culture and different traditions.

The people who live in Chinatown are an ethnic minority in New York City.
Discrimination against ethnic minorities is prohibited by law in most countries.
The populations of ethnic minorities have increased significantly over the period of 5 years.


In computer science, "address" refers to the location of a specific piece of information, device or other item that can be accessed by computers.

The most common system used for addresses on the Internet are IP addresses that use a series of four numbers, separated by dots. An example would be:

Each computer or device on that network will have a unique "address" that is known by the other computers and devices in the network. Your own personal computer will also have a unique address that it uses for interacting with the various resources on the Internet.

When you use your browser to request a web page from a web server, the web server usually makes a record of what computer asked for the web page, what web page was requested, and whether or not the web page was successfully sent to the requesting computer. The record will contain, among this other data, the IP address of your computer.

Additionally, your internet service provider (ISP) stores who was using what IP address at a particular time. Under an existing law, ISPs are required to retain records for 90 days upon request of a "government entity". They will usually keep that records 3 to 9 months.


Litigation refers to the act of taking an issue or dispute to a court of law for settlement i.e. filing a case in court.


Adder is a component of a computer processor that adds numbers together. The adder takes numerical information passed into it and is able to determine amounts.

There are two types of adders: half adder and full adder. The half adder adds two single binary digits. It has two outputs, sum (S) and carry (C). The carry signal represents an overflow into the next digit of a multi-digit addition. A full adder adds binary numbers and accounts for values carried in as well as out.