#primary meanings


1. (Noun) A connection point at which parts of more than one items are joined.
2. (Adjective) Shared by two or more people. For example, a joint bank account.


1. To describe the meaning of a word.
In this exam, the participant has to define a couple of words.

2. To describe something clearly with its exact limits.
All rules and restrictions are defined in the third paragraph.

See: definition


1. Allowing something that is requested.
The United States granted permanent residence to 300,000 applicants who work in high-tech industry.

2. To accept that something is true, often before expressing that still your opinion does not change.
I'll grant you that he is not succeed it this time but I still believe in him.

3. Amount of money given by a government or other organization (called the grantor) for a particular purpose such as education or research.


1. Ostensible is used to express something that seems to be true, or stated to be true, but it might not be.
He wrote three more books after his ostensible retirement.

1a) Or the person who has uttered the word has doubts about its trueness.
Her ostensible reason was to study maths, but her real reason was being close to him.

1b) Apparent; seeming, visible.
He suffered much, and not only from his ostensible enemies.


1. To carry out or perform something.
The soldier refused to execute the order.

2. To complete and give validity to a legal instrument, meaning to sign, seal, or notarize.
All joint tenants will need to execute the instrument.

3. To kill a condemned person according to law. (execution of death sentence)
He is going to be executed because of the murder he committed.


An estate is a large area of land in the country which is owned by a person or organization. It usually has a large house on it. It is the modern word for a "mansion".
Image source: Lillian Farms Country Estate


1. An organization or institution established by endowment which provides funds for a particular purpose such as research or charity.
The aims of Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation are, globally, to enhance healthcare and reduce extreme poverty, and in the United States, to expand educational opportunities and access to information technology.

2. The act of founding, establishing an institution or organization.
She has been teaching since the foundation of the school.

3. An underlying basis, or support or principle for something.
Her charges are completely without foundation.

4. The supporting layer of a building below the ground.


1. (Noun) An amount deducted from full amount of price (typically from tax).
2. Process of reducing.
He applied for the abatement of the penalty.


1. First in order of importance.
Our principal nutritional components are protein, carbohydrate, and fat.

2. The original amount of money lent or invested, as opposed to the interest charged on that money or income. (synonym: capital)
The average rate of return on my principal has remained above 10%.


1. The word "attend" means to go to an event or being present in a place regularly.
His daughter prefers to attend a school that provides education for females only.

2. Accompany as a companion.
During the tour, I was attended by a lovely Swiss girl.

3. Pay attention.
He hasn't attended to a word of his teacher.


1. (Noun) The copy of files or data.
Where did you put the backup?

2. (Noun) Support or help.
A police officer requested backup.

3. (Adjective) Being secondary.
So, what's your backup plan?

:: Note ::
"Backup" is derived from the verb form "back up". (It is written separately)


1. Background is used to describe processes running on a computer that don't need input from the user.
My anti-virus program runs in the background when the processor is idle.

2. The furthest part of an image from the viewer while another object is exist in front of background.
You need to set a smaller aperture value to take a photo with a blurred background.

3. Your experience of working or education, criminal history.
I have a background in software engineering.
He was the prime suspect because of his background.

4. Origin, social heritage.
He comes from a working-class (or wealthy) background.


1. An official request (usually in written) for employment, admission to a school, etc.. The person who applied for it, called as "applicant".

2. The act of putting something into operation: e.g. the process of applying some medicine to the skin.

3. Computer programs in operating systems are also called as application.