AMD stands for “Advanced Micro Devices". This is a computer company that was founded in 1969 that makes computer parts. AMD is an international company based in Santa Clara, California and is one of the largest computer parts manufacturers. AMD's main products include microprocessors, motherboards, and graphic cards.

Alt Gr key

Alt Gr key (Alt Graph) is used to type alternative characters such as currency symbols and accented letters. For example, AltGr + C = ©. On a Macintosh, the Option key has functions similar to the Alt Gr key.

The Alt Gr key is most commonly used in combination with another key. You hold down Alt Gr and press another key. For example, in Windows, if you hold down the Alt Gr key and while still holding the Alt Gr key down, you then press the "Q" key, you can get the "@" sign on your computer screen.
Alt Gr key

See, also Alt key.

Alt key

In keyboards, Alt is short for Alternative. It refers to a specific key that is present on many keyboards, one which has the letters “Alt” on it. The Alt key is most commonly used in combination with another key. You hold down Alt and press another key. On a Macintosh, the equivalent of Alt is called the Option key.

For example, in Windows, if you hold down the Alt key and while still holding the Alt key down, you then press the Tab key one or more times, you can rotate through various windows on your computer screen.
Alt key
There is another key similar to the Alt key; Alt Gr key (Alt Graph) is used to type alternative characters such as currency symbols and accented letters. For example, AltGr + C = ©.

Markup language

A markup language is a computer language that is used to specify markup instructions for the data in a document. In other words, markup instructions aren't the data in the document; they are data about the data in the document. A markup language is not a programming language because it does not have conditional statements such as "if" statement.

There are several types of markup languages. The most well-known markup languages include HTML, XML, and XHTML. Usually they were created for commonly-used types of documents which have exact specifications as far as their structure. Often, these specifications as to documents structure are well-known around the world and available to anyone who wants to create documents of that type.
Markup language
XML is an extensible markup language. This means that users can create their own document structure, and then use XML to specify markup instructions for the data in those documents.

HyperText Markup Language (HTML), one of the document formats of the World Wide Web, is an instance of Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML). Unlike XML, although users can not create their own tags (elements), in HTML5, Custom Elements allow web developers to define new types of HTML elements by registering them with the javascript command document.registerElement().

Data aggregation

An aggregate is a whole that is created by combining several parts. A data aggregation is compiling data into a whole or categorized sections.

For example, if a car company had several different lines of cars and the company took all the sales data from each car division and brought it all together into one large, organized collection, that full collection of all sales data would be an aggregate.

Address bus

A bus is a set of lines that is used to connect two or more devices and to carry information. The address bus is used to specify the memory location to be used for a particular operation by the CPU.

Computers have two major types of buses: system bus and a number of I/O (input/output) buses. The system bus contains three buses: an address bus, a data bus and the control bus.
Address bus


In computer science, "address" refers to the location of a specific piece of information, device or other item that can be accessed by computers.

The most common system used for addresses on the Internet are IP addresses that use a series of four numbers, separated by dots. An example would be:

Each computer or device on that network will have a unique "address" that is known by the other computers and devices in the network. Your own personal computer will also have a unique address that it uses for interacting with the various resources on the Internet.

When you use your browser to request a web page from a web server, the web server usually makes a record of what computer asked for the web page, what web page was requested, and whether or not the web page was successfully sent to the requesting computer. The record will contain, among this other data, the IP address of your computer.

Additionally, your internet service provider (ISP) stores who was using what IP address at a particular time. Under an existing law, ISPs are required to retain records for 90 days upon request of a "government entity". They will usually keep that records 3 to 9 months.


Adder is a component of a computer processor that adds numbers together. The adder takes numerical information passed into it and is able to determine amounts.

There are two types of adders: half adder and full adder. The half adder adds two single binary digits. It has two outputs, sum (S) and carry (C). The carry signal represents an overflow into the next digit of a multi-digit addition. A full adder adds binary numbers and accounts for values carried in as well as out.

Active Directory

Active Directory is a directory service developed by Microsoft that provides central authentication and authorization services for Windows servers.

Active Directory is included in most Windows servers as a set of processes and services. A server running Active Directory Domain Services is called a domain controller. It is used by a system administrator to store information about users, assign security policy and deploy other related services such as certificate services, rights management services, etc.


A CPU (Central Processing Unit) is the part of a computer that controls all the actions the computer does. It is a small device that contains billions of tiny electronic components. There are 2.600.000 transistors in a 8-core Intel Core i7 processor (transistor count of microprocessors).

Most CPUs have a set of built-in "instructions" in them. They define the various actions the CPU can take – things like taking in data from a keyboard, storing data in the computer, sending data to a display, etc.

The basic job of all processors is to execute various combinations of those simple instructions built into them. Modern computers can perform billions of instructions per second. All actions you can make a computer do will be composed of various combinations of these built-in actions.

Principal components of a CPU include the ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit) and the CU (Control Unit):
The arithmetic itself is performed in the ALU in the CPU. An ALU is the part of the CPU that performs mathematical functions and logic operations. It does addition and subtraction and moves things around inside the memory of the computer. It can be made to operate when you type exact instructions into a computer. After the ALU executes a math problem, the resulting number is stored in the ACC. The ACC is simply a storage location for data, not an element of the CPU that performs functions.

The control unit (CU), which extracts instructions from memory and decodes and executes them, calling on the ALU when necessary.


The accumulator is used in a part of the computer called the Central Processing Unit (CPU). The accumulator (ACC) temporarily stores the results of math performed inside the CPU. It is called this because the results of mathematical operations "accumulate" (stack up) there.


"ACC" stands for "accumulator". The accumulator is used in a part of the computer called the Central Processing Unit (CPU). The ACC temporarily stores the results of math performed inside the CPU. It is called this because the results of mathematical operations "accumulate" (stack up) there.

MOS 6502

MOS 6502 is an 8-bit microprocessor introduced in 1975 that became very famous because it could be purchased for about 20% of the usual price of processors of that era. The 6502 was caused rapid decreases in pricing across the entire processor market. 6502 processors were the basic design used in many original video game systems. Atari, Nintendo and Commodore 64 used the 6502 or variations of it.
MOS 6502


A website is composed of one or more individual web pages, where a “page” is an organized, separate document containing text, images, video and other elements.

The electronic files that make up a web site are stored on specialized computers called web servers. These computers accept requests from other, remote computers for specific web pages, and deliver those files needed to make the web page display on the remote computer.

The type of program you would use to view web pages is called a web browser. It is this program that would make the requests to the web server for the web site files.

A website address looks like this:
Improved by Karen C.


Files are collections of data stored on a computer. The data in a file is organized in a specific manner, usually based on how that data is going to be used by the computer. Files each have their own name and contain their own data.

Files are often organized in folders – also called "Directories." Folders can contain files. Folders can also contain folders – each of which could contain further files and/or folders. The resulting structure of files and folders is called a hierarchy.


In operating systems such as Windows, administrator (shortened as admin) is the user with the highest level privileges. An administrator can make changes to other user accounts, and can change security settings.


In computer programs, the default value is a preselected option assigned by the programmer when no alternative is specified by the user.


SSD (Solid State Drive) is a non-volatile memory built on solid state architecture. Unlike a HDD, an SSD has no moving parts which gives it advantages such as faster reading and writing data, while a traditional hard disk drive consists of a spinning disk with a read/write head on a mechanical arm called an actuator.

The Life Span of an SSD

Life span depends on storage types of SSD drives. But, simply put, the more storage cells an SSD owns, the longer it will work.

Life span Forecast Formula for SSDs:
(Write cycles x Capacity) / (SSD Factor x Data Per Year)

The SSD factor specifies the rate of the real amount of data to the actual data written. For the calculation, one chooses a high value of 5. In addition, the amount of data that is written on the drive per year is estimated. If an estimation is difficult, then you can choose a value between 1,500 and 2,000GB.


To run an application (program) in computers. The file extension ".exe" in Windows comes from the term "executable".

back up

"back up" is the act of making a copy of files, data or hard drive in case the original is lost or damaged.
Please back up the data every night.

:: Note ::
The file backed up is called as a backup. It is written as one word when it is used as a noun or adjective.
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