Break down

In chemistry, breakdown means a chemical decomposition. In other words, it is the separation of a single chemical compound into its elemental parts or to simpler compounds. Chemical breakdown is usually defined as the exact opposite of chemical synthesis.

Break down

1. A failure to function for something mechanical, electrical, or electronic.
The car broke down, I will be late for the meeting.


2. Being emotionally upset.
The girl broke down when she got the exam results.


3. To divide into parts.
It's affordable if you break it down into monthly payments.

up to

1. As far as a specified level.
She was up to his knees in water.


2. A limit or boundary.
We teach English up to intermediate level in this class.
I can make up to 1,000 copies a day.
You should not study up to the last minute before an exam.


See, also to be up to.

to be up to

1. To do.
What are you up to on Sunday? (What are you doing on Sunday?)


2. Implies mischievous behavior.
What are the kids up to? They're hiding something.


3. To decide.
It's up to you (it's your decision).


See, also up to.

AMD

AMD stands for “Advanced Micro Devices". This is a computer company that was founded in 1969 that makes computer parts. AMD is an international company based in Santa Clara, California and is one of the largest computer parts manufacturers. AMD's main products include microprocessors, motherboards, and graphic cards.

Alt Gr key

Alt Gr key (Alt Graph) is used to type alternative characters such as currency symbols and accented letters. For example, AltGr + C = ©. On a Macintosh, the Option key has functions similar to the Alt Gr key.


The Alt Gr key is most commonly used in combination with another key. You hold down Alt Gr and press another key. For example, in Windows, if you hold down the Alt Gr key and while still holding the Alt Gr key down, you then press the "Q" key, you can get the "@" sign on your computer screen.
Alt Gr key


See, also Alt key.

Alt key

In keyboards, Alt is short for Alternative. It refers to a specific key that is present on many keyboards, one which has the letters “Alt” on it. The Alt key is most commonly used in combination with another key. You hold down Alt and press another key. On a Macintosh, the equivalent of Alt is called the Option key.


For example, in Windows, if you hold down the Alt key and while still holding the Alt key down, you then press the Tab key one or more times, you can rotate through various windows on your computer screen.
Alt key
There is another key similar to the Alt key; Alt Gr key (Alt Graph) is used to type alternative characters such as currency symbols and accented letters. For example, AltGr + C = ©.

Alpha test

Alpha testing is a form of testing done while creating a software program. It is often the first form of testing done, hence the name “alpha”. Alpha is the first letter of the Greek alphabet and is often used to describe things that come first in an ordered system (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, ....omega).


Alpha test is the first phase of software testing. The second one, beta test is carried out by end users and the alpha test is carried out by testers or software developers.

Alias

An alias is a name that something is known by, rather than the actual name of the thing itself.
The police officers arrested a drug suspect, 34 years old, alias "Barbie".

ALGOL

ALGOL (short for "Algorithmic Language") is a computer programming language developed jointly by a committee of European and American computer scientists in 1958 that was mainly used to solve math problems and scientific equations.


The name ALGOL was taken from the word “algorithm” (a set of steps to solve a problem or perform an action). Many of the first computer programs that aided scientists in creating military craft and equipment were written in ALGOL.

Algebra

Algebra is a type of math that uses letters and other symbols to represent numbers and amounts. For example, 1 + n = 4. This is an algebra problem. In this case, “n” would be “3."

Ajax

AJAX stands for Asynchronous JavaScript and XML. Ajax is a client-side script that can be used in creating asynchronous functions for web sites. An Ajax script can send and retrieve data from a server asynchronously without the need for a complete page refresh.


Ajax is best understood by relating it to the way a normal web page is accessed by a user. With a web browser, a user issues a "request" to see a specific web page. That request is sent to the web server. That server gathers those requested files and sends them to the user's computer as a "response" to the "request," and the browser then converts them to a visual form and displays them for the user. This is where Ajax can come in. Instead of requesting that the entire page be recreated, the creator of the web site can make it so that just the new content is requested from the web server.


The way this works is that user action triggers an asynchronous request to the web server for JUST a specific section of the web page. It is asynchronous in that it is not tied to the full response for a web page.


The technologies used to accomplish feature are JavaScript and XML – hence the name "AJAX," or Asynchronous JavaScript And XML.


An Ajax request can be carried out with JQuery or plain javascript. Here is a code example in plain javascript from stackoverflow.com
Ajax

Markup language

A markup language is a computer language that is used to specify markup instructions for the data in a document. In other words, markup instructions aren't the data in the document; they are data about the data in the document. A markup language is not a programming language because it does not have conditional statements such as "if" statement.


There are several types of markup languages. The most well-known markup languages include HTML, XML, and XHTML. Usually they were created for commonly-used types of documents which have exact specifications as far as their structure. Often, these specifications as to documents structure are well-known around the world and available to anyone who wants to create documents of that type.
Markup language
XML is an extensible markup language. This means that users can create their own document structure, and then use XML to specify markup instructions for the data in those documents.


HyperText Markup Language (HTML), one of the document formats of the World Wide Web, is an instance of Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML). Unlike XML, although users can not create their own tags (elements), in HTML5, Custom Elements allow web developers to define new types of HTML elements by registering them with the javascript command document.registerElement().

Agile project management methodology

It is a project management methodology that is popular in the computer industry. Agile is best understood in terms of how it differs from more traditional methods for project management.


Traditional project management is characterized by a linear approach that usually has some or all of these broad steps:


● Initiation (starting the project)
● Planning
● Execution
● Monitoring
● Completion


Agile project management methodology, first introduced in the late 1980s, is characterized by a non-linear approach. Instead of being completed in the “Planning” step, requirements and solutions evolve through collaboration between self-organizing, cross-functional teams. Execution of project work is done continuously throughout the life of the project. Agile methods involve adaptive planning, evolutionary development, early delivery, and continuous improvement. Agile encourages rapid and flexible response to change.


This method is increasingly popular, and is often used to manage the process of creating software. It focuses on teamwork and finishing one feature of the software at a time fully before moving onto the next.


:: More Info ::
Types of Agile Methodologies

Data aggregation

An aggregate is a whole that is created by combining several parts. A data aggregation is compiling data into a whole or categorized sections.


For example, if a car company had several different lines of cars and the company took all the sales data from each car division and brought it all together into one large, organized collection, that full collection of all sales data would be an aggregate.

Address bus

A bus is a set of lines that is used to connect two or more devices and to carry information. The address bus is used to specify the memory location to be used for a particular operation by the CPU.


Computers have two major types of buses: system bus and a number of I/O (input/output) buses. The system bus contains three buses: an address bus, a data bus and the control bus.
Address bus

Address

1. The specific directions to find someone or an organization.
What is your business address?


2. To call someone by title or name.
In court, judges are addressed as 'Your Honour'.
How do you address a female teacher? - Miss or Ma'am?


3. A formal speech.
The graduation address was boring.

Address

In computer science, "address" refers to the location of a specific piece of information, device or other item that can be accessed by computers.


The most common system used for addresses on the Internet are IP addresses that use a series of four numbers, separated by dots. An example would be: 127.0.0.1


Each computer or device on that network will have a unique "address" that is known by the other computers and devices in the network. Your own personal computer will also have a unique address that it uses for interacting with the various resources on the Internet.


When you use your browser to request a web page from a web server, the web server usually makes a record of what computer asked for the web page, what web page was requested, and whether or not the web page was successfully sent to the requesting computer. The record will contain, among this other data, the IP address of your computer.


Additionally, your internet service provider (ISP) stores who was using what IP address at a particular time. Under an existing law, ISPs are required to retain records for 90 days upon request of a "government entity". They will usually keep that records 3 to 9 months.

Address

A postal address signifies a specific location in your town, city, neighborhood, apartment building, etc.


When addressing international mail, you may use the following USPS recommendations for addresses.


Use all capital letters with no more than 5 lines, including:
1. Addressee's name
2. Street address or P.O. box number
3. City or town, principal subdivision such as province, state, or county, and postal code. In some countries, the postal code may precede the city or town.
4. Country name


An example postal address in the U.S.:


MR JOHN SMITH
176, MY STREET,
SANTA MONICA, LOS ANGELES 90404
UNITED STATES
Improved by Karen C.