Markup language

A markup language is a computer language that is used to specify markup instructions for the data in a document. In other words, markup instructions aren't the data in the document; they are data about the data in the document. A markup language is not a programming language because it does not have conditional statements such as "if" statement.


There are several types of markup languages. The most well-known markup languages include HTML, XML, and XHTML. Usually they were created for commonly-used types of documents which have exact specifications as far as their structure. Often, these specifications as to documents structure are well-known around the world and available to anyone who wants to create documents of that type.
Markup language
XML is an extensible markup language. This means that users can create their own document structure (unlike HTML), and then use XML to specify markup instructions for the data in those documents.


HyperText Markup Language (HTML), one of the document formats of the World Wide Web, is an instance of Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML).


Unlike XML, although users can not create their own document structure, in HTML5, Custom Elements allow web developers to define new types of HTML elements by registering them with the javascript command document.registerElement().

Agile project management methodology

It is a project management methodology that is popular in the computer industry. Agile is best understood in terms of how it differs from more traditional methods for project management.


Traditional project management is characterized by a linear approach that usually has some or all of these broad steps:


● Initiation (starting the project)
● Planning
● Execution
● Monitoring
● Completion


Agile project management methodology, first introduced in the late 1980s, is characterized by a non-linear approach. Instead of being completed in the “Planning” step, requirements and solutions evolve through collaboration between self-organizing, cross-functional teams. Execution of project work is done continuously throughout the life of the project. Agile methods involve adaptive planning, evolutionary development, early delivery, and continuous improvement. Agile encourages rapid and flexible response to change.


This method is increasingly popular, and is often used to manage the process of creating software. It focuses on teamwork and finishing one feature of the software at a time fully before moving onto the next.


:: More Info ::
Types of Agile Methodologies

Data aggregation

An aggregate is a whole that is created by combining several parts. A data aggregation is compiling data into a whole or categorized sections.


For example, if a car company had several different lines of cars and the company took all the sales data from each car division and brought it all together into one large, organized collection, that full collection of all sales data would be an aggregate.

Address bus

A bus is a set of lines that is used to connect two or more devices and to carry information. The address bus is used to specify the memory location to be used for a particular operation by the CPU.


Computers have two major types of buses: system bus and a number of I/O (input/output) buses. The system bus contains three buses: an address bus, a data bus and the control bus.
Address bus

Address

1. The specific directions to find someone or an organization.
What is your business address?


2. To call someone by title or name.
In court, judges are addressed as 'Your Honour'.
How do you address a female teacher? - Miss or Ma'am?


3. A formal speech.
The graduation address was boring.

Address

In computer science, "address" refers to the location of a specific piece of information, device or other item that can be accessed by computers.


The most common system used for addresses on the Internet are IP addresses that use a series of four numbers, separated by dots. An example would be: 127.0.0.1


Each computer or device on that network will have a unique "address" that is known by the other computers and devices in the network. Your own personal computer will also have a unique address that it uses for interacting with the various resources on the Internet.


When you use your browser to request a web page from a web server, the web server usually makes a record of what computer asked for the web page, what web page was requested, and whether or not the web page was successfully sent to the requesting computer. The record will contain, among this other data, the IP address of your computer.


Additionally, your internet service provider (ISP) stores who was using what IP address at a particular time. Under an existing law, ISPs are required to retain records for 90 days upon request of a "government entity". They will usually keep that records 3 to 9 months.

Address

A postal address signifies a specific location in your town, city, neighborhood, apartment building, etc.


When addressing international mail, you may use the following USPS recommendations for addresses.


Use all capital letters with no more than 5 lines, including:
1. Addressee's name
2. Street address or P.O. box number
3. City or town, principal subdivision such as province, state, or county, and postal code. In some countries, the postal code may precede the city or town.
4. Country name


An example postal address in the U.S.:


MR JOHN SMITH
176, MY STREET,
SANTA MONICA, LOS ANGELES 90404
UNITED STATES
Improved by Karen C.

Add-on

An add-on is an additional thing that is included or added to something so that it can do more work for you, or it can do some very specific work for you. For example, you buy a special case for your smartphone that has a bigger battery built into the case. That case and its bigger battery could be called an add-on for your phone.

Adder

Adder is a component of a computer processor that adds numbers together. The adder takes numerical information passed into it and is able to determine amounts.


There are two types of adders: half adder and full adder. The half adder adds two single binary digits. It has two outputs, sum (S) and carry (C). The carry signal represents an overflow into the next digit of a multi-digit addition. A full adder adds binary numbers and accounts for values carried in as well as out.


Active Directory

Active Directory is a directory service developed by Microsoft that provides central authentication and authorization services for Windows servers.


Active Directory is included in most Windows servers as a set of processes and services. A server running Active Directory Domain Services is called a domain controller. It is used by a system administrator to store information about users, assign security policy and deploy other related services such as certificate services, rights management services, etc.

CPU

A CPU (Central Processing Unit) is the part of a computer that controls all the actions the computer does. It is a small device that contains billions of tiny electronic components. There are 2.600.000 transistors in a 8-core Intel Core i7 processor (transistor count of microprocessors).


Most CPUs have a set of built-in "instructions" in them. They define the various actions the CPU can take – things like taking in data from a keyboard, storing data in the computer, sending data to a display, etc.


The basic job of all processors is to execute various combinations of those simple instructions built into them. Modern computers can perform billions of instructions per second. All actions you can make a computer do will be composed of various combinations of these built-in actions.


Principal components of a CPU include the ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit) and the CU (Control Unit):
CPU
The arithmetic itself is performed in the ALU in the CPU. An ALU is the part of the CPU that performs mathematical functions and logic operations. It does addition and subtraction and moves things around inside the memory of the computer. It can be made to operate when you type exact instructions into a computer. After the ALU executes a math problem, the resulting number is stored in the ACC. The ACC is simply a storage location for data, not an element of the CPU that performs functions.


The control unit (CU), which extracts instructions from memory and decodes and executes them, calling on the ALU when necessary.

Accumulator

The accumulator is used in a part of the computer called the Central Processing Unit (CPU). The accumulator (ACC) temporarily stores the results of math performed inside the CPU. It is called this because the results of mathematical operations "accumulate" (stack up) there.

ACC

"ACC" stands for "accumulator". The accumulator is used in a part of the computer called the Central Processing Unit (CPU). The ACC temporarily stores the results of math performed inside the CPU. It is called this because the results of mathematical operations "accumulate" (stack up) there.

Abstract Data Type

“Abstract” indicates ideas, thoughts and theories as opposed to physical or concrete existence. Abstract data refers to data where we are only concerned with it in terms of its items and operations – not the implementation.


For example, we use int, float, char data types only with the knowledge with values that can take and operations that can be performed on them without any idea of how these types are implemented. So we only care about what a data type is supposed to do, but not about how it does it.

MOS 6502

MOS 6502 is an 8-bit microprocessor introduced in 1975 that became very famous because it could be purchased for about 20% of the usual price of processors of that era. The 6502 was caused rapid decreases in pricing across the entire processor market. 6502 processors were the basic design used in many original video game systems. Atari, Nintendo and Commodore 64 used the 6502 or variations of it.
MOS 6502

Internet

The Internet is a connected network of computers around the world that can be used to access the World Wide Web. (The World Wide Web was created at CERN in Switzerland in 1990 by a British scientist named Tim Berners-Lee.)


The Internet provides a variety of information and communication facilities, such as mail services, web pages, social media, online gaming, or downloading files.


The Internet was developed in the United States by DARPA, it was first connected in October, 1969, and was called "arpanet". The term "internet" was adopted in December 1974, as an abbreviation of the term InterNetworking (the model using TCP/IP protocol).

Website

A website is composed of one or more individual web pages, where a “page” is an organized, separate document containing text, images, video and other elements.


The electronic files that make up a web site are stored on specialized computers called web servers. These computers accept requests from other, remote computers for specific web pages, and deliver those files needed to make the web page display on the remote computer.


The type of program you would use to view web pages is called a web browser. It is this program that would make the requests to the web server for the web site files.


A website address looks like this: http://www.example.com
Improved by Karen C.

File

Files are collections of data stored on a computer. The data in a file is organized in a specific manner, usually based on how that data is going to be used by the computer. Files each have their own name and contain their own data.


Files are often organized in folders – also called "Directories." Folders can contain files. Folders can also contain folders – each of which could contain further files and/or folders. The resulting structure of files and folders is called a hierarchy.

Forward slash

A forward slash, also known as just slash, is a symbol which looks like this: "/". It is most commonly used in the following ways:


1. To show choices – meaning literally “and or”; for example "small/medium/large".
2. To show a ratio of things (“miles/day” in traveling would be how many miles you travel per day; it could be spoken as “miles per day;”)
3. To separate the different parts of a collection of electronic documents.


This third use is the most common use of the "/" symbol in computer and it has been used for a long time. It was created as an aid to organizing and finding the various files you might store on a computer.


See, backslash.

Slash

A slash is a symbol which looks like this: "/". It is most commonly used in the following ways:


1. To show choices – meaning literally “and or”; for example "small/medium/large".
2. To show a ratio of things (“miles/day” in traveling would be how many miles you travel per day; it could be spoken as “miles per day;”)
3. To separate the different parts of a collection of electronic documents.


This third use is the most common use of the "/" symbol in computer and it has been used for a long time. It was created as an aid to organizing and finding the various files you might store on a computer.


See, backslash.